Les Butler received his BS (1977) from the University of Arkansas, then studied inorganic chemistry with Prof. Ted Brown at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His PhD (1981) research was the construction of a novel solid-state NMR spectrometer and its applications to inorganic materials. Postdoctoral research (1981-93) in photochemistry and solid-state chemistry was done at CalTech with Prof. Harry Gray. He started at LSU as an assistant professor in 1983. His group built several solid-state NMR spectrometers and used magnet facilities at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Los Alamos to study organometallic complexes, catalysts, polymer blends, biological samples, and environmental samples. He spent two years at the National Science Foundation (2001-02) as a program officer in chemistry. Now, his research program has moved in 3D+ imaging with X-ray and neutrons, mostly in materials science and polymer blends.
The recent advances in X-ray and neutron sources, detectors, mathematics, and computation now make possible the practical use of tomography for chemical and material science investigations. A search of NSF awards (tomography, CHE) shows that we have the first and largest award for tomography for chemical applications, an NSF GOALI (grant opportunities for academic liaison with industry). The collaborative partner is Dr. Larry Simeral at Albemarle Corporation.
Dr. Kyungmin Ham, postdoc and now staff scientist at CAMD, built the first tomography beamline at the LSU CAMD synchrotron. As one of only eight synchrotrons in the USA, it gives us a powerful advantage for tomography research. For example, we learned of a new tomography mathematical insight in a June, 2005 meeting; we re-programmed the tomography beamline system by August to use this new data acquisition scheme.
One current research project is the heat-induced dissolution of flame retardant particles in a polymer blend. Shown here is an X-ray tomography data set rendered as an isosurface at a threshold set to show undissolved flame retardant particles from a sample intentionally prepared far from equilibrium. As this sample is heated, the flame retardant particles dissolve into the polystyrene. Here, over 1400 particles are tracked across the heating process. Each particle is analyzed with respect to volume, shape, and local concentration gradient. The static shape analysis is from a spherical harmonic analysis procedure developed by Dr. Ed Garboczi (NIST). We added to his code the ability to extract concentration gradients around each tracked particle. This and other new procedures developed in our lab will advance 3D+ materials analyses. The image was created by undergraduate Roshan Pandrey, calculations by REU student Kameron Kilchrist, and data set collection was done with Kyungmin Ham at the APS BM-2 beamline.
Lithium-ion polymer batteries are extremely interesting topics for 3D+ imaging. A standard research approach would be to build a laboratory battery optimized for the tomography experiment. However, our colleagues in the battery industry express doubts about the relevance of this approach. A more challenging, but fruitful experimental design is to image commercial batteries, developing new imaging procedures as needed. Shown here are a pair of single-cell, 145 mAhr batteries with graphite/cobalt oxide electrodes. The 3D+ neutron imaging was done so as to enhance the visibility of the LiC6 species in the graphite electrode, shown here as the difference image between charged and discharged batteries (left and right images show two different viewing options). The vertical structure is attributed to volume changes in the battery as it discharges. The images were made by REU student Bradley Wood and the data collected at FRM II (Munich).
Our imaging work is done at a variety of sites:
• LSU CAMD synchrotron tomography beamline.
• APS BM-2, BM-32, BM13
• NSLS X2A
• NIST neutron imaging beamline
• FRM II (Munich) neutron imaging beamline
• Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) neutron imaging beamline
We are involved in several construction projects for new beamlines:
• NSLS II FXI (member of the beamline advisory team)
• SNS VENUS neutron imaging (core member of the instrument development team)
• LSU laboratory X-ray tomography system (our own design)
LSU Distinguished Faculty Award, 2001
Naval Research Laboratory Alan Berman Award, 1993
Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, 1989-93
Wood, B. M., Ham, K., Hussey, D. S., Jacobson, D. L., Faridani, A., Kaestner, A., Vajo, J. J., Liu, P., Dobbins, T. A., Butler, L. G., “Real-Time Observation of Hydrogen Absorption by LaNi5 with Dynamic Neutron Tomography: Establishing Time-Windows, Projection Weighting, and Image Processing”, (in preparation).
”An Analysis of Student Performance from a Class using MasteringChemistry at Louisiana State University”, Rasil Warnakulasooriya, Leslie G. Butler, and Randall W. Hall, J. Chem. Educ. (in preparation).
Jinghua Ge, Dominique Homberger, and Les Butler, “Strategies for Teaching the Use of High-Performance Visualization Software in an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Course”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education, (in preparation).
K. Ham, H. A Barnett, T. Ogunbakin, R. Weber, J. T. Scorsone, D. J. Henry, E. B. Iverson, B. Schillinger, L. G. Butler , “Comparison of X-ray and Neutron Tomography for Imaging Granitic Veins in Migmatite: Comments on Neutron Tomography Design Specifications”, (in preparation)
A. Kaestner, B. Münch, P. Trtik, L. G. Butler, “Spatio-temporal computed tomography of dynamic processes”, SPIE Optical Engineering, 2011 (in press).
A. S. Tremsin, J. B. McPhate, J. V. Vallerga, O. H. W. Siegmund, W. B. Feller, E. Lehmann, L. G. Butler, M. Dawson, “High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector”, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A, 2011, 652, 400-403.
L. G. Butler, B. Schillinger, K. Ham, T. A. Dobbins, P. Liu, and J. J. Vajo, “Neutron Imaging of a Commercial Li-Ion Battery During Discharge: Application of Monochromatic Imaging and Polychromatic Dynamic Tomography”, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A., 2011, 651, 320-328.
Butler, L. G., “Progress Towards Neutron Tomography at the US Spallation Neutron Source”, in “GEOX2010”, ed K. Alshibli and A. Reed, 2010.
Barnett, H. A.; Ham, K.; Scorsone, J. T.; Butler, L. G., “Synchrotron X-ray Tomography for 3D Chemical Distribution Measurement of a Flame Retardant and Synergist in a Fiberglass-Reinforced Polymer Blend”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2010, 114, 2-9.
Homberger, D.; Ham, K.; Ogunbakin, T.; Bonin, J.; Hopkins, B.; Osborn, M.; Hossein, I.; Barnett, H.; Matthews II, K.; Butler, L.; Bragulla, H., “The Structure of the Cornified Claw Sheath in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus): Implications for the Claw Shedding Mechanism”, Journal of Anatomy,2009, 214, 620-643.
Heath A. Barnett, Kyungmin Ham and Leslie G Butler, Burning Issues in Tomography, Computing in Science & Engineering, 2008, March/April, 78-81.
Heath A. Barnett, Kyungmin Ham and Leslie G Butler, Synchrotron X-ray Tomography for 3D Chemical Diffusion Measurement of a Flame Retardant in Polystyrene, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A, 2007, 582, 202-204.
Kyungmin Ham and Leslie G Butler. Algorithms for three-dimensional chemical analysis via multi-energy synchrotron X-ray tomography. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B, 2007, 262, 117-127.
Feng-Jung Wu, Larry A. Simeral, Anthony A. Mrse, Jan L. Eilertsen, Lacramioara Negureanu, Zhehong Gan, Frank R. Fronczek, Randall W. Hall, and Leslie G. Butler. Structural Characterization of Isobutylaluminoxane Hydride, A High Aluminum-Content Cluster: Further Studies of Methylaluminoxane. Inorg. Chem., 2007, 46, 44-47.
Kyungmin Ham, Heath A. Barnett, Tolulope Ogunbakin, Dominique G. Homberger, Hermann H. Bragulla, Kenneth L. Matthews II, Clinton S. Willson, and Leslie G. Butler, “Imaging Tissue Structures: Assessment of Absorption and Phase-Contrast X-ray Tomography Imaging at 2-nd and 3-rd Generation Synchrotrons” Proceedings of the SPIE, 2006, 6318, 631822
Lacramioara Negureanu, Randall W. Hall, Leslie G. Butler, and Larry A. Simeral. “Methylaluminoxane (MAO) polymerization mechanism and kinetic model from ab initio molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations” J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 16816-26
Heath A. Barnett, Kyungmin Ham, and Leslie G. Butler. “The 3D Chemical Distribution of a Flame Retardant in a Fiberglass-Reinforced Polymer Blend as Measured with Synchrotron X-ray Tomography” Proceedings of the SPIE, 2006, 6318, 631821
Jan L. Eilertsen, Randall W. Hall, Larry S. Simeral, Leslie G. Butler. “Tools and Strategies for Processing Diffusion Ordered 2D NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) of a Broad, Featureless Resonance: An Application to Methylaluminoxane (MAO)” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2004, 378, 1574-1578
Ham, K.; Jin, H.; Al-Raoush, R.; Xie, X.; Willson, C. S.; Byerly, G. R.; Simeral, L. S.; Rivers, M. L.; Kurtz, R. L.; Butler, L. G.. Three-Dimensional Chemical Analysis: Synchrotron Tomography at Multiple X-ray Energies of Brominated Aromatic and Antimony Oxide Additives in Polystyrene. Chemistry of Materials, 2004, 16, 4032-42
Pamela L.Bryant, Walter J. Lukiw, Zhehong Gang, Randall W. Hall, and Leslie G. Butler. High Field 19.6 T 27Al Solid-State MAS NMR of in vitro Aluminated Brain Tissue. J.Mag. Res., 2004, 170, 257-62
L. G. Butler, K. Ham, C. S. Willson, M. L. Rivers, and R. L. Kurtz. “Algorithms for three-dimensional chemical analysis with multi-energy tomographic data” Proceedings of the SPIE, 2004, 5535, 286-292
Leslie G. Butler. “An Introduction to Solution, Solid-State, and Imaging NMR Spectroscopy “,(G. Gauglitz and T. Vo-Dinh, Eds). Handbook of Spectroscopy (John Wiley), 2003.
H. Jin, K. Ham, J. Y. Chan, L. G. Butler, R. L. Kurtz, S. Thiam, J. W. Robinson, R. A. Agbaria, I. M. Warner; R. E. Tracy, “High Resolution Three-Dimensional Visualization and Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Vitro by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Microtomography and Highly Localized X-ray Diffraction”, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 2003, 47, 4345-56
Mrse, A. A.; Bryant, P. L.; Hormes, F. J.; Butler, L. G.; Satyanarayana, N.; Rambabu, B.. “Solid-State NMR and XANES Studies of Lithium and Silver Silicate Gels Synthesized by the Sol-Gel Route” J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 2003, 318, 296-304
Kyungmin Ham, Hua Jin, Leslie G. Butler, and Richard L. Kurtz, “A Microtomography Beamline at the LSU CAMD Synchrotron”, Rev. Sci. Instr., 2002,73, 1521-3
J.D. Eusden, Jr., L. Gallagher, T.T. Eighmy, B.S. Crannell, J.R. Krzanowski, L.G. Butler, F.K. Cartledge, E. Emery, E.L. Shaw and C.A. Francis, “Petrographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Phosphate-Stabilized Mine Tailings from Leadville, Colorado”, Waste Management, 2002, 22,117-35
Pamela L.Bryant, Chris R. Harwell, Anthony A. Mrse, Earl F. Emery, Zhehong Gan, Tod Caldwell, Arneil P. Reyes, Philip Kuhns, David W. Hoyt, Larry S. Simeral, Randall W. Hall, and Leslie G. Butler. “Structural Characterization of MAO and Related Aluminum Complexes. Solid-State Al-27 NMR with Comparision to EFG Tensors from ab inition Molecular Orbital Calculations”, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 2001, 123, 12009-12017
J.W. Owens, L.G. Butler, C. Dupard-Julien and K. Garner, “Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, and Voxel Imaging of a Cobalt-Zeolite-Y Complex.”, Materials Research Bulletin, 2001, 36, 1595-1602
L.G. Butler, K. Ham, H. Jin, R.L. Kurtz, “Tomography at the LSU CAMD Synchrotron: Applications to Polymer Blends”, SPIE: Developments in X-Ray Tomography III, 2001, 4503, 54-61
E.F. Emery, T. Junk, T.E. Ferrell, Jr., R. De Hon’ and L.G. Butler, “Solid-State 2H MAS NMR Studies of TNT Absorption in Soil and Clays”, Environmental Science & Technology, 2001, 35, 2973-8
R.W. Hall, L.G. Butler, S. McGuire, S.P. McGlynn, G. Lyon, R. Reese and P. Limbach, “Automated, Web-Based, Second-Chance Homework”, J. Chem. Ed., 2001, 78, 1704-1708
L.G. Butler, “Synchtrotron Tomography”, CAMD Materials Science Summer School Program, 2000,
P.L. Bryant, L.G. Butler, A.P. Reyes and P. Kuhns, ” 27Al Field-Swept and Frequency-Stepped NMR for Sites with Large Quadrupole Coupling Constants”, Solid State NMR, 2000, 16, 63-7
L.G. Butler, J.W. Owens, F.K. Cartledge, R.L. Kurtz, G.R. Byerly, A.J. Wales, P.L. Bryant, E.F. Emery, B. Dowd and X. Xie, “Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography, Electron Probe Microanalysis, and NMR of Toluene Waste in Cement”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2000, 34, 3269-75
L.G. Butler, F.K. Cartledge, J.W. Owens and B. Dowd, “Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography and Solid-State NMR of Environmental Wastes in Cement”, SPIE: Developments in X-Ray Tomography II, 1999, 3772, 97-104
Randall W. Hall, Leslie G. Butler, Neil R. Kestner, and Patrick A. Limbach, “Combining Feedback and Assessment via Web-Based Homework”, Campus-Wide Information Systems, 1999, 16, 24-26
Pam L. Bryant, Chris R. Harwell, Katherine Wu, Frank R. Fronczek, Randall W. Hall, and Leslie G. Butler, “Single-Crystal 27Al NMR of Andalusite and Calculated Electric Field Gradients: The First Complete NMR Assignment for a 5-Coordinate Aluminum Site”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 5246-5252
T.T. Eighmy, B.J. Crannell, J.E. Krzanowski, L.G. Butler, F.K. Cartledge, E. Emery, J.D. Eusden, Jr., E.L. Shaw and C.A. Francis. Characterization and Phosphate Stabilization of Dusts from the Vitrification of MSW Combustion Residues. Waste Management, 1999, 18, 513-524
Chris R. Harwell, Anthony A. Mrse, Akilah I. Shelby, Leslie G. Butler and Randall W. Hall, “Ab Initio Calculation of 81Br NQR Transition Frequencies of Brominated Aromatics (Flame Retardants)”, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 8088-8092
N.R. Kestner, P.A. Limbach, R.W. Hall and L.G. Butler, “If You Build It, Will They Come?”, Campus-Wide Information Systems, 1999, 16(5), 175-8
- William Jarrett, PhD, (1988), NMR scientist U. of Southern Mississippi
- Maria Altbach PhD, (1988), Dept. of Radiology, U. of Arizona
- Kermin Guo PhD,, (1989), Professor, Soochow University, Taiwan
- Margaret Jackisch PhD,(1989), Defense Group, Inc.
- Ae Ja Kim Ph.D,(1992), Professor, Ewha Womans Univ., Korea
- Michael Janusa PhD, (1993), Professor, Stephen F. Austin College,
- Xiao Wu PhD,(1994), NMR scientist, Albemarle Corp.
- Youngil Lee PhD,(1994), Professor, University of Ulsan, Korea
- Greta Flowers PhD, (1999), Professor, Southern University
- Pamela Bryant PhD, (1999), Professor, Howard Payne University
- Anthony Mrse PhD,(2001) NMR Lab Manager, U. of California at San Diego
- Earl Emery,(2001) NMR applications scientist, Tecmag, Inc.
- Heath Barnett, PhD,(2008) Avoyelles Co.